The geographical position of Kyrgyzstan has determined the nature of the formation of kyrgyzskogo ethnic group. The oldest of the tribes are etnoobrazuyuschih Saks and Usuns inhabiting the Tian Shan in the I millennium BC In the I millennium BC lived in Kyrgyzstan various Turkic tribes (common Turgis, karauki, karakanidskie Turks). In the 11-14 centuries. through the territory of Kyrgyzstan were waves of migration of peoples from the depths of Central Asia (Karakitais, Mongols, Tatars and others). As a single ethnic group are the Kirghiz in the 16th century. Currently, in addition to 2.7 million Kirghiz residing in the country, about 300 thousand live in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Russia, 300 thousand - in China (the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region) and the exact number in Afghanistan (the Pamirs). Small groups of Kirghiz residing in Mongolia, Turkey and Pakistan. Before the advent of Islam in Central Asia, brought by Arab conquerors in the 8th century., The main role in the religious and political life of the people playing shamans. Some of the Kirghiz adopted Islam in the 8th century., But the circulation of the nation as a whole was completed only in the 19th century.
The language belongs to the Kirghiz-Kipchak (northeast) to a group of Turkic languages and is closely related to Kazakh. In the Kyrgyz distinguish the northern and southern group of dialects. The original graphic was based kyrgyzskoy writing the Arabic alphabet, and in 1926 was made a translation of the Latin alphabet, and in 1940 the latter was replaced by Russian. In 1992 at the initiative of the government was proclaimed a return to the Latin alphabet. However, financial constraints, this process slows down, so the Cyrillic alphabet and Russian language continues to be widely circulated in the country.
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